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Dictionary of Cancer Biology—Diving into the Depths of Science

AcinusAny group of cells that looks like a berry with multiple lobes is called an acinus. Alveolar sacs in the lungs and the berry-shaped apex of exocrine glands, where the secretion is produced, are examples of acinar structures.
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)Prostate enlargement, or benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), is a frequent problem for elderly men. Urinary discomfort, such as a decrease in urine output from the bladder, may be distressingly brought on by an overgrown prostate gland. It may also affect the kidneys, bladder, or urinary tract.
Benign TumorTumors that don’t spread to other body parts are considered benign. They don’t go to other areas of the body or neighboring areas. Benign tumors develop slowly and usually have clear boundaries. A benign tumor is not typically a cause for concern.
Epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT)By undergoing a series of biochemical changes, a polarized epithelial cell (where one usually engages with the basement membrane through its basal surface) can take on the characteristics of a mesenchymal cell (one with augmented dispersal potential, distant metastasis, enhanced resistance to apoptosis, and significantly increased yield of extracellular matrix (ECM) components). The disintegration of the basement membrane and the development of a mesenchymal cell capable of migrating out from the epithelial layer in which it was generated are considered to be the last steps in an EMT.
Immune CellsIn the bone marrow, stem cells may differentiate into various kinds of white blood cells. These cells can then transform into immune cells. Lymphocytes (B cells and T cells), neutrophils, eosinophils, basophils, mast cells, monocytes, macrophages, dendritic cells, natural killer cells, and dendritic cells are all examples of these types of immune cells.
Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSCs)

By reverting adult cells from the skin or blood to an embryonic-like pluripotent state, iPSCs may be used to create an infinite supply of any kind of human cell required for therapeutic applications. iPSCs may be coaxed into several cell types, such as beta islet cells for diabetes treatment, blood cells for leukemia patients to get fresh blood devoid of cancer cells, or neurons for treating neurological illnesses.
Malignant TumorMalignant tumors are characterized by uncontrolled cell growth and metastasis (the spread of cancer to other parts of the body). Tumors deemed malignant are cancerous (ie, they intrude on other locations). They travel through the body’s circulatory and lymphatic systems to reach new locations. The term “metastasis” describes this process. The most frequent sites for metastasis are the liver, lungs, brain, and bone. However, metastasis may occur everywhere in the body.
Prostate Cancer (PCa)Prostate cancer develops in the prostate gland. The prostate, shaped like a little walnut, is a gland in men responsible for making the seminal fluid that carries and nurtures sperm. Among the most frequent cancers in men is cancer of the prostate. Some prostate cancers may not be dangerous because they develop slowly and stay inside the prostate gland. Although some forms of prostate cancer develop gradually and might necessitate no treatment, others may be expanded quickly and are far more dangerous. Timely screening of prostate cancer increases the likelihood of a good treatment outcome because the disease is more likely localized to the prostate gland.
Tumor Microenvironment (TME)The healthy tissues and organs provide nutrients to a tumor. Tumors can alter their microenvironment, and in turn, the microenvironment may impact the growth and metastasis of a tumor.
What is a tumor?A tumor is an abnormal mass of tissue that arises when cells proliferate uncontrollably or fail to die off at the appropriate times. Malignant tumors are cancerous, whereas benign ones are not (cancer). Even if they become rather big, benign tumors don’t harm the surrounding tissue or invade other organs.

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